Some Galap Insight

N2TORTS

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In 1959, 100 years after the first publishing of Darwin’s On the Origin of Species the Galapagos Islands became as a national park. The park service together with the Darwin Foundation has made remarkable steps over the past 50 years towards the preservation, conservation and restoration of native species.
Perhaps the best example of their efforts is the story of the Espanola tortoise. At one time there were at least 3000 native tortoises on the island of Espanola. However Espanola is one of the flattest and most accessible of the islands, making it a favorite place for passing ships. As a result by 1965 there were just 14 remaining tortoises living on Espanola – 2 males and 12 females. The tortoises were transferred to the Charles Darwin Research Station on Santa Cruz. A third male was then discovered at the San Diego Zoo. In the 1970′s the tortoise-breeding program began. From the brink of extinction, of 15 tortoise the program has been a success and today nearly 1500 Espanola Tortoise have been repatriated to their native island.With the success of the Espanola program stopping the extinction of other species proved to be more problematic. In 1971, Lonesome George was discovered on the Pinta. He has the unique distinction of being is noted as the last remaining of his species. George was relocated to the Darwin Station and scientists began work on the question how to keep the Pinta Tortoise from becoming extinct. Two females from Wolf Volcano on Isabela were placed in the pin with George. These females were selected as they were found to be the genetically closest relation to George and though any off spring produced would not pureblood – the species would somehow continue.
For years George showed little or no interests in these females. But in 2008, the national park announced both of Geroge’s companions laid eggs. The world awaited news if the Pinta race had been saved. At the end of the year it was announced none of the eggs were viable and their search for how to save the species continued.
In 1994 a team of Yale Scientists began the Galapagos Tortoise Genetics Process. The group went to Isabela and took blood samples from 27 tortoises living high on the Wolf Volcano. Some 2000 tortoises are thought to live in and around Wolf. These tortoises are of significant interest, as tortoises here, resemble more than one subspecies. Normally each group of tortoise will either have a domed shaped shell (similar to the tortoises of Alcedo or other parts of Isabela) or a saddleback shaped shell (similar to Lonesome George) depending on the environment where they live. Yet near Wolf, tortoises can be found with both domed and saddleback shells.
Over the next decade the genetics team began collecting DNA samples from the tortoises in not only in Isabela, but also began samples from tortoises at the Darwin Station, around Galapagos, and tortoises held in captivity all over the world. On Pinta they found they took DNA samples from the remains of 15 tortoises and they cataloged the information to gain a better understanding of the species.
As they began to review their database, the impossible seemed to be possible. First they believe they have discovered a second pureblood Pinta tortoise. A Tortoise known as Tony, thought to be approximately 50 years of age is living at the Prague Zoo – from all current data Tony appears to be the same exact subspecies as George.
As they sifted through the DNA information they discovered the reason the Wolf tortoises appeared to resemble more than one subspecies. Isabela and the area near the Wolf Volcano was often the last stop for pirate ships in Galapagos. It appears that these ships collected tortoises on other islands during their stay only to discard them here. When testing the DNA samples, several of the tortoises living on Wolf were found to be first generation hybrid Pinta tortoises – tortoises born to mothers from Isabela and fathers from Pinta. This discovery meant that some of the tortoises living on Wolf were 50% the same genetic subspecies as Lonesome George. This information provided new hope that by further investigation a pureblood or half-blood female Pinta tortoise can be found – and the Pinta race can survive.
The genetic team seemed to have uncovered a miracle – still there were more surprises to realize. The research discovered descendants of the extinct Floreana Tortoise. The Floreana subspecies became extinct during the early 20th century due to human activities, and unlike Lonesome George no known examples were known to have survived. Yet, the DNA research uncovered 9 tortoises with high percentage of Floreana genome (up to 94%) and they believe 1 tortoise may even be pureblood. Of the tortoises identified of being from Floreana 6 are female and 3 are male all of which are currently residing at the breeding center in Santa Cruz.
http://galapagosonline.wordpress.com/2010/03/19/the-evolution-of-extinction/

Does anyone have a spare DNA test Kit or Mass spectrometer laying around?
:rolleyes:
 

tortadise

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Good stuff JD. I love reading back up on the Galapagos, a definite archipelago of great diversity, and the fruits of natures rawest form in development. I know that duke university could help you in DNA testing.
 

N2TORTS

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Good stuff JD. I love reading back up on the Galapagos, a definite archipelago of great diversity, and the fruits of natures rawest form in development. I know that duke university could help you in DNA testing.
Cool Kelly Glad you liked it ~ .....Down in San Diego, I'm working with my father and the folks at Scripps as well as Quantum Designs (Bio-Tech Firm) on some info about the DNA studies , genetics and even sexing Neo-Nates with the same technology. Too early in the game yet to start rapping about techy stuff~.....just yet ;)
"One of my favorite excursions begins with a stroll down the packed sand streets of Villamil, as you reach the end of town and the new hotel you’ll arrive at a wooden boardwalk wildlife trail marked by marine iguanas lying in the sun...........
Isla Isabela – Giant Tortoise Breeding Center and Lagoons"
http://galapagosonline.wordpress.com/2010/06/09/isla-isabela-tortoise-center/

yet another excellent read....~

Hope all is well my friend......:)


JD~
 
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