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Well-Known Member
5 Year Member
Feb 21, 2010
Albinos’ , Hypo’s , Snows and Whites…… are all alterations to DNA called mutations, and they can result in the formation of new characteristics that are heritable, or capable of being inherited. Germinal mutations are those that occur in the egg or sperm cells and therefore can be passed on to the organism's offspring.
Somatic mutations are those that happen in cells other than the sex cells, and they cannot be transmitted to the next generation. This is an important distinction to keep in mind in terms of both the causes and the effects of mutation.
If only the somatic cells of the organism are affected, the mutation will not appear in the next generation; on the other hand, if a germinal mutation is involved, what was once an abnormality may become so common in certain populations that it emerges as the norm.
Only DNA testing can say for sure what the lineage is of an animal and it’s true endemic range… .Mutations can occur from structurally sound individual herds from a long lineage of excellent quality PURE-BRED animals from 100‘s of years in their own range and locality.
The fact that a mutation has occurred in a color pattern does not make it any less of a quality animal. One should realize when this type of “unusual event” occurs…. do not necessarily reach the conclusion that the parents are “not” the parents. Mutations have occurred in all breeds of reptiles and mammals to date; some good and some that are not. There are many cases of genetic mutation, which has not affected the quality of the animal but may have an affect on the sellers/owners of the animal through owning something different than the norm such as an Albino/Hypo in captivity ( with no worries for predators‘) with mind~blowing colors. :p:D;)
Shell and scale coloring is achieved through pigment synthesis, Melanocytes manufacture two types of melanin: the black/brown photo-protective eumelanin pigment, and the red-yellow cytotoxic phaeomelanin pigment. Several paracrine factors secreted primarily by surrounding keratinocytes are involved in the melanogenic pathway by stimulating the switch between phaeomelanin and eumelanin . In this pathway, microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) plays a central role by regulating the expression of the TYR (Tyrosinase), TRP-1 (Tyrosine Related Protein) and DCT (Dopachrome Tautomerase) genes that encode enzymes involved in pigment manufacture.
Many mistake recessive carriers that produce non-normal offspring as producing mutants when nothing could be farther from the truth...

In most species of reptiles the C locus is considered to be tyrosinase because albinism is caused by mutations at this locus

Full Color. The C allele allows for fully saturated reds.

C full color, allows full expression of whatever pigment is prescribed by other genes. It may be either C/C or C/c.

Yellow/High White - This gene would look like cece / ee ex: Black bred to Tan. The c allele decreases the intensity of the red or tan pigmentation
Hypo - is optically similar to albino but retains very slight tysonase activity
Albino- As mentioned above, the c gene cannot produce working tyrosinase, and an individual cannot produce melanin pigment.

Reilly, Philip. DNA and Other Adventures in Genetics. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2000.
Twyman, Richard M. Advanced Molecular Biology: A Concise Reference. Oxford, UK: Bios Scientific Publishers, 1998.
Weinberg, Robert A. One Renegade Cell: How Cancer Begins. New York: Basic Books, 1998.
R.T.L ( My Father) Technical Director Bio-Technology Division, Quantum Designs:
San Diego , Ca - 2012



5 Year Member
Jul 15, 2012
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I really enjoyed your informative genetics discussion. I think it would be cool to be able to experiment with that with my turtles but I don't think that would work for me. :)


Active Member
5 Year Member
Jul 18, 2012
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a little hard to translate for me but at the final i learn a lot.
thanks for this infos. :)
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